Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington
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Corticosterone secretion in tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus): Influential factors and conservation applications

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Version 2 2023-09-26, 23:55
Version 1 2021-11-15, 12:08
posted on 2023-09-26, 23:55 authored by Anderson, Lindsay Erin

Animals are regularly exposed to environmental, social and physiological challenges. In reaction to these challenges, individuals adjust their physiology and behaviour to maintain essential processes and optimise fitness. The most widely used indicators of physiological stress in vertebrates are glucocorticoid hormones (corticosterone (CORT) or cortisol), which are commonly referred to as ‘stress hormones’. The use of CORT as a tool to understand how individuals respond to natural or human-caused challenges is central to stress physiology research. Here, I investigated intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with CORT secretion, CORT secretion as an indicator of physiological response to challenges/stressors, and the value of CORT secretion as conservation tool in an iconic protected reptile (the tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus).  A capture-restraint time series revealed a significant CORT response over a 24 h period in male and female (non-gravid and gravid) tuatara. Baseline CORT and the CORT response to capture and restraint (i.e. a standardised capture-stress protocol) were similar between sexes; however, female reproductive condition was correlated with CORT secretion in that higher baseline CORT and a lower CORT response were observed in gravid females. An observational study incorporating data across a wide range of ambient temperatures (from four island sites) confirmed that body temperature (Tb) is positively correlated with baseline CORT in gravid females only, and revealed a positive correlation between the CORT response and higher Tb in all adults. A supporting experimental study showed that acute ambient temperature increase (in which mean Tb reached 21.4±0.4°C) elicits a significant CORT response to capture-restraint in gravid females. These results confirmed that gravid females are not secreting CORT maximally during nesting, but actively modulate secretion. An inter-island comparison of CORT secretion (for four populations) revealed that baseline CORT secretion was similar among populations during the non-breeding and breeding seasons; however, the CORT response to capture-restraint varied significantly among populations. Inter-population variation in testosterone (T) was observed in males (but not females) and was positively linked with increased baseline CORT from the non-breeding season to the breeding season, suggesting male reproductive activity may drive seasonal change of baseline CORT. Significant correlations were observed between the CORT response to capture-restraint (but not baseline CORT) and habitat elements of latitude, tuatara density and seabird abundance and 2) demogenetic factors of sex ratio and genetic diversity. The measurement of CORT as a physiological monitoring tool indicated that short- and long- term dynamics of CORT secretion in tuatara are not altered through translocation to a new island, as the acute CORT response remained stable throughout exposure to cumulative stressors and long-term dynamics of CORT secretion in translocated populations simultaneously mirrored those in source populations.  These findings deliver the most detailed study of CORT secretion patterns in tuatara to date. Moreover, as the first study to apply CORT secretion data as an conservation physiology monitoring tool in tuatara, these results serve as a baseline reference for future research and monitoring of conservation efforts.


Copyright Date


Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License


Degree Discipline

Ecology and Biodiversity

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Victoria University of Wellington Unit

The Alan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code

960805 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity at Regional or Larger Scales

Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Doctoral Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Biological Sciences


Nelson, Nicola; Cree, Alison; Towns, David