Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington
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Validating Listening Strategies Using Ordinal Response Models

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Version 2 2023-09-22, 01:42
Version 1 2021-11-16, 00:50
posted on 2023-09-22, 01:42 authored by Kwon, Young-Min (Brian)

This thesis illustrates statistical methodology for identifying the effects of explanatory variables, for the response variables with an ordinal nature. The dataset applied to this methodology is a Listening Strategy dataset collected by The Language Learner Strategy Team at the National Institute of Education from Singapore. In this dataset, eight strategies were formed from 38 questions based on Linguistic theory. The core objective of this thesis is to validate whether 38 questions were aggregated appropriately. We use the proportional odds model, which is the most popular for ordinal responses, and the generalised estimating equations (GEE) method to analyse repeated measurements. Although there are several ways to analyse repeated categorical responses, this thesis only demonstrates the marginal approach using the GEE method. By fitting proportional odds models, we evaluate whether student’s English Language test result associated with the questions are at the same level within each strategy. Results show that the English Language test result effects for the questions associated with Self-initiation, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating, Prediction and Utilisation strategies are similar. On the other hand, the effects for the questions associated with Perceptual processing, Inferencing and Socio-affective strategies are significantly different. We also use a simulation study to show that when the ordinal response is treated as continuous, ordinary least square regression might have misleading results.


Copyright Date


Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License

CC BY 4.0

Degree Discipline

Statistics and Operations Research

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Master of Science

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code


Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Research Masters Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research


Liu, Ivy;