Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington
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The Korowai Framework: Assessing GE through the Values the ART Confederation Associates with Ngarara

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posted on 2021-11-10, 10:14 authored by Baker, Mahina-a-rangi

The aim of this thesis is to assess genetic engineering (GE) through the values that the Confederation of Te Ati Awa, Ngati Raukawa ki te tonga and Ngati Toarangatira (the ART Confederation) associates with ngarara. The Korowai Framework was developed to conduct this assessment. Interviews were conducted with 14 participants from across the ART Confederation on the values they associate with ngarara and their interpretations of GE. The values associated with ngarara that were identified in the interviews, were used constitute the kaupapa of the Korowai Framework. The key values identified are: mauri, whakapapa, tohu, tapu, and kaitiakitanga. It emerged from the interviews that ngarara appeal to us to be conscious of our intricately bound connection to and dependency on living systems. The assessment through the Korowai Framework found that the outcomes of GE do not uphold the values associated with ngarara. Participants articulated significant concerns that GE confounds the ART Confederation's control over their relationship with the world around them. This thesis has demonstrated that the Korowai Framework can be used as a tool for the Confederation to get to the decision making table with a comprehensive evidence based understanding of the people's position on GE from which they can negotiate. It demonstrates that robust and legitimate assessment of GE can be conducted using theories, methodologies, kaupapa, tikanga, and frameworks that are specific to the ART Confederation.


Copyright Date


Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License

Author Retains Copyright

Degree Discipline

Environmental Studies

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Master of Environmental Studies

Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Research Masters Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences


Hutchings, Jessica