Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington
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The Iced Slipper

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posted on 2022-09-26, 21:05 authored by Neill, Sophia

This research project explores ways of configuring parametric software for generative design and additive manufacturing of high heeled shoes. The current cultural and social context suggests fashion is an outlet for individual identity and self-expression. This is particularly relevant for high heeled shoes where customisation of fit is critical and adaptability to style and aesthetic considerations is universally applicable. In addition, the traditional methods of high heel shoe manufacture depend on convoluted supply chains, complex assembly and an extensive inventory to accommodate the required range of sizes and the demand of consumerism. This raises the question, “Can the traditional method of manufacturing and distributing high heels be streamlined through the combination of generative design and 3D printing for a more bespoke and sustainable system of production?” In response, the research aims to develop an integrated parametric design workflow for customised 3D printed high heeled shoes. It seeks to integrate diverse considerations, such as scanning technologies and style parameters with concepts like design for deconstruction and distributed manufacture to transform the way footwear is designed, manufactured, distributed, and recycled. The research project will follow two overarching methodologies: Research for Design and Research through Design. It takes inspiration from recent experimental design studies for 3D printed high heels but seeks to combine these with more versatile and sustainable ways of configuring, customising and manufacturing shoes. The generative workflow created in this research is transferable to other products and systems of making.


Copyright Date


Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License

Author Retains Copyright

Degree Discipline

Design Innovation

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Master of Design Innovation

ANZSRC Socio-Economic Outcome code

280104 Expanding knowledge in built environment and design

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code

4 Experimental research

Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Research Masters Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Design Innovation


Fraser, Simon; Miller, Tim