The Cloak of Before, the Wrench / of Beyond: Spirituality, Identity and Landscape in Pakeha Literary Fiction, 1975-2009
This thesis takes a novel approach to Pakeha spiritual identities. Drawing on representations of landscape and spirituality in eighty-seven works of Pakeha literary fiction published between 1975 and 2009, it identifies complex and contested spiritualities of landscape as manifestations of the problems of Pakeha belonging. Key themes of belonging and desecration give voice to identity concerns that are submerged in popular avowals of a shared “love of the land”. This thesis identifies Pakeha writers as an important voice for the articulation and construction of Pakeha spiritual identities. It illuminates the spiritual possibilities that are obscured by narrow conceptions of religion, spirituality and secularity, which allows a new exploration of the dynamic and developing nature of our landscapes, spiritualities and identities.