Teachers’ and students’ perceptions of motivational teaching strategies in an Indonesian high school context
The purpose of this multiple case study is to explore teachers’ and learners’ perceptions of motivational strategies. This study addresses three questions: How do teachers perceive the use of motivational teaching strategies; how do teachers implement these strategies; and how do learners’ report the impact of these strategies on their motivation. The findings of this study help teachers of English understand the effectiveness of strategies that motivate their students and the impact of implementing these strategies in their teaching. The data for this case study research were obtained from schools in a small town in West Sumatra, Indonesia. This study is underpinned by Dörnyei's (2001) work on Motivational Teaching Strategies. He identified a total of 102 such strategies, which he grouped into four phases: creating motivational components; generating students’ motivation; maintaining motivation; and encouraging positive retrospective self-evaluation. These phases build on each other so that student motivation is created, generated, maintained and encouraged (Dörnyei, 2001). The underlying assumption of this framework is that teachers’ behaviours and beliefs have a direct influence on learners. This qualitative research uses case study methodology in order to contextualise the research within the real life environment of an Indonesian secondary classroom (Yin, 2003). Additionally, this approach allows different data collection techniques (Yin, 2009). These include semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, stimulated recalls, and focus group interviews. The findings indicate that the implementation of Dörnyei’s (2001) framework, motivational teaching practice (MTP), and Hall and Kidman’s (2004) teaching and learning map (T-L map) are complementary. The findings reveal two groups of motivational components. The first is the teachers’ rapport with students, including the encouragement given to students and the building of trust and respect with the students. The second relates to the teacher’s planning decisions such as the selection of classroom activities, the way feedback is given, the management of the classroom, and the choice of learning resources. The findings also suggested that the appropriate use of L1 is a motivational teaching strategy. It is unique to this study that L1 not only promotes L2 learning but also influences students’ motivation. These findings suggest that teachers of English in an Indonesian high school context can influence their students’ motivation by understanding the impact of motivational teaching strategies on students' learning and behaviour. The teachers themselves play a very important role in motivating their students.