thesis_access.pdf (24.66 MB)
Download file

Studies on the Life Cycle of Some New Zealand Anisakidae (Nematoda)

Download (24.66 MB)
thesis
posted on 08.11.2021, 19:47 by Hurst, Rosemary Jennifer

The life cycle of Anisakis simplex in New Zealand waters is described from observations on the morphology, distribution and behaviour of free-living and parasitic stages. Comparison with the life cyles of two other anisakids, Phocanema decipiens Myers 1959 and Thynnascaris adunca Rudolphi 1802 shows differences in distribution, degrees of host specificity, the status of invertebrate hosts, the factors influencing infestation levels of teleost hosts, and the location and pathological effects of infestation. Larval stages occurring in intermediate and paratenic hosts were identified by comparison of larval and adult morphometrics. A. simplex larvae were also positively identified by in vitro cultivation through to adults. Some morphometric variations compared to overseas descriptions are apparent. The ventriculus of A. simplex larvae is shorter relative to body length and the intestinal caecum of P. decipiens is longer relative to ventriculus length. Egg and free-living larval stages were obtained from in vitro cultivation of (A. simplex) and collection of eggs from mature adults from definitive hosts (T. adunca). Eggs of P. decipiens were not obtained. Eggs of A. simplex and T. adunca hatch in 8-11 days at 15 [degrees] C. A. simplex eggs hatch in 6 days at a temperature of 22 [degrees] C and did not hatch in 16 days at 10 [degrees] C. Eggs and free-living stage III larvae of A. simplex and T. adunca are similar in morphology with little differentiation of internal structures. Examination of the stomach contents of pelagic fish infested with anisakids indicated that possible intermediate hosts of A. simplex are the euphausiid Nyctiphanes australis and the decapod Munida gregaria. Possible hosts of T. adunca and M. gregaria are a wide variety of smaller zooplanktonic groups, e.g. decapod larvae and copepods. Larvae of A. simplex were found in one of 8850 N. australis; larvae of T. adunca were found in 69 of 3999 chaetognaths (Sagitta spp.) a medusa and a decapod larva. These larvae are morphologically similar to Stage III larvae from teleosts. No anisakids were found in 3956 Euphausia spp., 1147 M. gregaria and 740 prawns. Twenty five T. adunca larvae and adults were found in 818 freshly eaten M. gregaria in teleost stomachs, indicating that this invertebrate may act as a paratenic and a definitive host. Experimental infection of N. australis and M. gregaria with stage II larvae of A. simplex and T. adunca was unsuccessful. The location of anisakid infestation in three pelagic teleost species, Thyrsites atun, Trachurus novaezelandiae and Trachurus declivis is described. A. simplex larvae are found mainly in the body cavity of all species, at the posterior end of the stomach, with less than one percent occurring in the musculature. Distribution of A. simplex larvae does not change with increasing size of the host or increasing total worm burden. Thyrsites atun have a higher proportion of larvae in the stomach wall (8-13%) compared to Trachurus spp. (< 4%). T. adunca larvae are found infrequently in the body cavity of all three species, on the pyloric caeca and in the stomach wall. Adults and larvae of T. adunca are found more commonly in the alimentary canal, indicating that these teleosts are more important as definitive hosts in the life cycle of this anisakid. P. decipiens larvae are found only in Thyrsites atun and occur mainly in the muscles (98.5%). No quantitative pathogenic effects of anisakid infestation on these teleosts hosts were detected. The main factors influencing the infestation of the three teleost species are age of the host, locality and season. Sex of the host and depth (over the continental shelf, 0-250 m) are not important. A. simplex infestation increased with age in all host species examined, and was higher in Trachurus declivis from the southern-most locality, suggesting the existence of at least two distinct populations of this species. Significant differences in infestation of Thyrsites atun with P. decipiens suggests that this anisakid may be more common in southern localities also. The infestation of Thyrsites atun by larval and adult T. adunca in the alimentary canal is most influenced by season and closely related to diet. Nematode samples were obtained from the marine mammals Arctocephalus forsteri, Kogia breviceps and Phocarctos hookeri. Adult A. simplex were recorded from A. forsteri (a new host record) and Kogia breviceps; preadults from Phocarctos hookeri. Adult P. decipiens were recorded from Phocarctos hookeri; preadults from Arctocephalus forsteri and K. breviceps. Other anisakids found were Anisakis physeteris (Baylis 1923), Contracaecum osculatum Rudolphi 1802 and Pseudoterranova kogiae (Johnston and Mawson 1939) Mosgovoi 1951. These records are all new for the New Zealand region except P. decipiens from P. hookeri and C. osculatum from Arctocephalus forsteri. A. simplex and C. osculatum were found associated with gastric ulcers in Arctocephalus forsteri.

History

Copyright Date

01/01/1980

Date of Award

01/01/1980

Publisher

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License

Author Retains Copyright

Degree Discipline

Zoology

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level

Doctoral

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Doctoral Thesis

Language

en_NZ

Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Biological Sciences

Advisors

Hewitt, G C