Some Copepoda Parasitic on Fishes of the New Zealand Region
Material representing 38 species of parasitic Copepoda, Order Caligoida, from New Zealand marine fishes, belonging to 20 genera and six families is discussed. Except for Lepeophtheirus erecsoni Thomson, of which only damaged material was available, the species are described and figured in detail. Previous records from New Zealand waters are discussed. The name Caligus vicarius is proposed for C. longicaudatus Brady which is preoccupied. Species examined and their hosts are as follows (new hosts for previously known species, and previously known species newly recorded from New Zealand are marked with asterisks) - Caligidae: Caligus brevis Shiinox on Pseudolabrus pittensisx, P. milesx and P. celidotusx; C. aesopus Wilsonx on Seriola grandisx; C. pelamydis Kroyerx on Thyrsites atunx; C. buechlerae Hewitt on Tripterygion sp.; Lepeophtheirus erecsoni Thomson on Latridopsis ciliaris; L. scutiger Shiinox on Pseudolabrus pittensisx, P. milesx and P. celidotusx; L. insignis Wilsonx on Mola mola; L. polyprioni Hewitt on Polyprion oxygenios and P. moeone; L. argentus Hewitt on Hyperoglyphe porosa; L. heegaardi Hewitt on Lepidopus caudatus; L. distinctus Hewitt on Genypterus blacodes; Euyphoridae: Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) on Makaira mitsukurii and M. marlina; Elytrophora brachyptera Gerstaekerx on Thunnus alalunga and. T. maccoyix; Pandaridae: Nesippus orientalis Hellerx on Mustelus antarcticus and Notorhynchus pectorosusx; N. borealis (Steenstrup and Lutken)x on Isurus oxyrinchusx; Dinemoura latifolia Steenstrup and Lutken on Carcharodon carcharias, Isurus oxyrinchus and Galeorhinus australis; D. producta (Muller) on Cetorhinus maximus and Carcharodon carcharias; Demoleus latus Shiinox on Squalus acanthiasx; Echthrogaleus braccatus (Dana) on an unrecorded host; E. coleoptratus (Guerin)x on Prionace glauca and Lamna nasus; E. denticulatus Smith on an unrecorded host; Phyllothyreus cornutus (Milne-Edwards)x on Isurus oxyrinchus; Pandarus bicolor Leachx on Squalus acanthias, Galeorhinus australisx, Notorhynchus pectorosusx and Cyprimulus sp.x; P. cranchii Leach on Galeorhinus australisx and Isurus oxyrinchus; Perissopus dentatus Steenstrup and Lutkenx on a hammerhead shark; Cecropidae: Cecrops latreillii Leach on Mola mola; Eudactylinidae: Nemesis lamna Rissox on Carcharodon carcharias, Cetorhinus maximus and Isurus oxyrinchus; N. robusta (van Beneden)x on Alopias vulpinus; Congericola pallidus van Benedenx on Conger vereauxix Dichelesthiidae; Pseudocycnus appendiculatus Hellerx on Thunnus alalunga; a new species of Hatschekia on Allomycterus jaculiferus; a further new species of Hatschekia on Lepidopus caudatus; Anthosomidae: a new species of Pseudolernanthropus on Thyrsites atun and Jordanidia solandri; a new species of Lernanthropus on Seriolella brama; Aethon percis (Thomson) on Parapercis coelias; two new species of Aethon on Cheilodactylus macropterus and Latridopus caudatues; Anthosoma crassum (Abildgaard) on Carcharodon carcharias, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lamna nasus and Galeorhinus galeusx; this collection includes all species belonging to these families which have previously and reliably been recorded from New Zealand waters, and of which adequate descriptions exist. The similarities of the cephalic appendages of caligoid copepods to those of free living copepods is discussed. The biogeographical relationships of the species here recorded are considered and it is concluded that many of these species, particularly those parasitic on elasmobranchs, are widespread, and that many of those with apparently restricted distributions may become known from other regions, especially when the little investigated parasite faunas of fishes from the South Pacific and South Atlantic become more fully known; the hosts from which the present species have been recorded are compared; it is shown that species occurring on elasmobranchs are confined to this but show little host specificity within it; teleost parasites may be restricted to one host species, one host genus, one host family, or to host families with systematic or ecological affinities; Cecrops latreillii is unique among these parasites in occurring on three quite different and apparently unrelated host species.