Platinum Complexes of Bicyclopropylidene and Related Ligands
The coordination chemistry of the cyclopropyl-substituted alkenes, bicyclopropylidene (BCP) and methylenecyclopropane (MCP), with platinum was explored. A range of complexes with ŋ²-alkene ligands were synthesised by the displacement of a ligand, typically ethene, from a precursor complex. These complexes are [Pt(L)(P—P)] (L = BCP, MCP; P—P = Ph₂P(CH₂)₃PPh₂, Cy₂P(CH₂)₂PCy₂, ᵗBu₂P(CH₂)₂PᵗBu₂, ᵗBu₂PCH₂(o-C₆H₄)₂PᵗBu₂), [Pt(L)(P—S)] (L = BCP, MCP; P—S = ᵗBu₂PCH₂(o-₆H4)CH₂SᵗBu), [Pt(C₂H4)(L)(PR₃)] (L = BCP, MCP; PR₃ = PPh₃, PCy₃), [Pt(MCP)₂(PR₃)] (PR₃ = PPh₃, PCy₃) and [PtCl₂(L)(L′)] (L = BCP, MCP; L′ = Py, DMSO). These were the first examples of platinum complexes with ŋ²-BCP ligands, and the first bis-MCP Pt complexes. BCP underwent ring-opening reactions with both Pt(0) and Pt(II) complexes to form the 1,3-diene allylidenecyclopropane (ACP). The first transition metal complexes of ACP [Pt(ACP)(P—P)] (P—P = Ph₂P(CH₂)₃PPh₂, Cy₂P(CH₂)₂PCy₂, ᵗBu₂P(CH₂)₂PᵗBu₂) were synthesised. Some of these complexes rearranged to form ŋ²:σ²-metallacyclopentene complexes, the first instances of the formation of ŋ²:σ²-metallacyclopentene complexes from ŋ²:π-diene complexes. With MCP, the ring-opening reaction only occurred with [₂(COD)], as a result of the anti-Markovnikov addition of Pt–H, generated by the β-hydride elimination of an Et group, across the double-bond. The major products of this reaction were the 1-methylcyclopropyl complexes [Pt(C(CH₂)₂CH₃)Et(COD)] and [Pt(C(CH₂)₂CH₃)₂(COD)], the first examples of such complexes. Protonation of [Pt(L)(P—P)] resulted in a ring-opening reaction to form both the 2-substituted and 1-methyl allyl complexes, [Pt(ŋ³-CH₂CRCH₂)(P—P)]⁺ (R = ᶜPr, Me; P—P = Ph₂P(CH₂)₃PPh₂, ᵗBu₂PCH₂(o-C₆H₄)CH₂PᵗBu₂) and [Pt(ŋ³-CR₂CHCHMe)(P—P)]⁺ (R = cPr, Me; P—P = Ph₂P(CH₂)₃PPh₂, ᵗBuPCH₂(o-C₆H₄)CH₂PᵗBu₂). The analogous 1-methyl complexes were also formed from [Pt(L)(P—S)], wherein the alkene reacted with a hydride formed by the ortho-metallation of the P—S ligand. Computational models were used to investigate the formation of the allyl structures and it was found that the activation energy had a more significant effect than complex stability on product distributions. Complexes with β-chloroalkyl ligands [Pt(C(CH₂)₂CR₂Cl)Cl(L)₂] (R = CH₂, H, L = SEt₂, NCᵗBu, Py) were formed by the addition of Pt–Cl across the alkene double bond. Phosphine complexes were formed by the displacement of a ligand from cis–[Pt(C(CH₂)₂CR₂Cl)Cl(Py)₂] (R = CH₂, H). These are the first examples of stable Pt(II) β-haloalkyl complexes. It was found using computational models that the presence of cyclopropyl rings had a stabilising effect on these complexes.