Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington
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New Design guidelines for Mobile Learning Application: Transactional Distance Perspective

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Version 2 2023-09-26, 23:57
Version 1 2021-11-23, 14:14
posted on 2021-11-23, 14:14 authored by Limtrairut, Pakapan

M-learning is the approach of using mobile device such as mobile phones to help users engage with learning content. M-learning software exists, but does not have high uptake especially compared to e-learning. One reason for this could be the lack of a model to combine learning theories with best practice in user interface design. One such learning theory relevant to mobile learning is Transactional Distance Theory (TDT). TDT identifies a number of key aspects and the concept of transactional distance. The thesis contributed an analysis of how TDT can be combined with both general and mobile specific usability guidelines. This thesis also contributes a multi-stage evaluation using both test subjects and experts to access both the model and proof-of-concept prototypes. Based on the results of our analysis and experience with designing, developing, and evaluating prototypes, we proposed a set of design guidelines that could be used to develop engaging m-learning applications that may improve uptake.


Copyright Date


Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License

Author Retains Copyright

Degree Discipline

Software Engineering

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Victoria University of Wellington Unit

Engineering at Victoria

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code


Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Doctoral Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Engineering and Computer Science


Marshall, Stuart; Andreae, Peter