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Localised Waves: Tightest Focus, Lorentz Transformation, and Polarization Singularities of Non-Paraxial Beams

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posted on 23.11.2021, 11:47 by Andrejić, Petar

I explore the limits of how tightly a beam can be focused, and derive a focal parameter for scalar beams that can be symbolically evaluated for most beams, and is guaranteed to be convergent for physical beams, that compares peak in- tensity to the total intensity in the beam profile. I argue that this parameter is superior to spot size, and use this to derive a rigorous limit of focusing for scalar beams. A particular beam known as the proto-beam achieves this tight- est focus possible. I show the generalisation of this measure to electromagnetic beams, and place a lower bound on the focal extent of electromagnetic beams. I also propose the use of exponential regulators as alternatives to moment based measures, as a solution to the convergence issues created by the power law decay of exact solutions.  I explore the Doppler shift for finite beams, and how monochromatic beams become polychromatic under a Lorentz boost. The local frequency is also explored, and I show that a deviation of the local frequency from the Doppler frequency will occur due to wavelength broadening near the focus.  Lekner and I examine a beam that closely approximates a paraxial Gaussian beam radially, and examine the phase singularities for optical beams that occur near the zeros of the beams wavefunction. We also investigate attempts to find exact solutions with Gaussian profiles, and show that this is impossible; any such beam will be evanescent and exponentially grow. Finally, I investigate the property of finite classical electromagnetic pulses having a zero momentum frame, and show that for quantum single photon pulses this property holds for the expectation value. I show that any individual measurement however, still measures a light-like four-momentum for the photon.


Copyright Date


Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

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Author Retains Copyright

Degree Discipline


Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Master of Science

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code


Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Research Masters Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Chemical and Physical Sciences


Lekner, John