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Integrating Statistical and System Dynamics Modelling to Analyse the Impacts of Climate Change on Rice Production in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

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posted on 22.11.2021, 11:37 by Bahri, Muhamad

Climate change, manifested as temperature rise and rainfall change, will pose significant challenges to rice farmers, leading to a possible rice shortage under a changing climate. This research aims to understand the impacts of climate variability and change on rice production through the rest of this century using Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, and combination of statistical and system dynamic modelling. The area of study is West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Wetland and dryland farming types are assessed separately because they have different rice varieties and different agricultural practices.  Overall, the research seeks to answer the question: How will climate change and climate variability affect rice production? Additional questions investigated are (1) What are the most significant supply uncertainties associated with a changing climate? and (2) What are possible solutions for reducing the impacts of climate change on rice production?. To answer these research questions, this study deals with three main research areas. First, based on observed data (1976-2011), this study developed regression-based statistical models in understanding the impacts of climate change on rice yield in West Nusa Tenggara. Statistical models find that the negative impacts of increased minimum temperature on rice yield are statistically significant.   By contrast, the effects of maximum temperature on rice yield are not statistically significant. A key reason for this is that the highest maximum temperature (32⁰C) in the observed period (1976-2011) was lower than 35⁰C, a rice threshold for maximum temperature. By 2090 (2077-2100), rice yield in wetland and dryland is projected to decrease by about 3% (RCP2.6 scenario), 4% (RCP4.5 scenario), 5% (RCP6.0 scenario) and 14% (RCP8.5 scenario).  Second, a system dynamics model was developed to assess the impacts of climate change on three issues including rice yield, harvested areas and rice production by 2090 (2077-2100). After embedding statistical models and estimating the impacts of maximum temperature on rice yield based on existing studies, the impacts of climate change on rice yield are projected. The system dynamics model is also equipped by August SOI to estimate the impacts of climate change on the timing of monsoon onset i.e the beginning of planting seasons. For assessing harvested areas under a changing climate, the system dynamics model is equipped by a mathematical relationship between seasonal rainfall and harvested areas.  Because the system dynamics model includes the impacts of high maximum temperature, the projected loss of rice yield in wetland and dryland is relatively higher compared to that in statistical models. It is projected that rice yield loss will be about 3% (RCP2.6 scenario), 6% (RCP4.5 scenario), 10% (RCP6.0 scenario) and 23% (RCP8.5 scenario) by 2090 (2077-2100). Likewise, rice production loss in wetland and dryland is projected to be about 1% (RCP2.6 scenario), 2% (RCP4.5 scenario), 7% (RCP6.0 scenario) and 19% (RCP8.5 scenario) by 2090 (2077-2100). The projected loss of rice production is relatively lower than rice yield loss as wetland harvested areas are projected to experience a slight increase about 3% by 2090 (2077-2100) under a changing climate. This also means that the ranking of the impacts of climate change from the most significant to the least significant is its impact on rice yield, rice production and harvested areas.   Third, policy options in overcoming the impacts of climate change on rice production are assessed. This study suggests that research on finding rice varieties with three main traits: heat tolerance, short growth duration and high yield is key to balance rice demand and rice supply in West Nusa Tenggara by 2090 (2077-2100). A failure to improve rice yield in such ways is likely to lead to significant reductions in rice supply in the face of climate change.  This study makes theoretical contributions, including the development of statistical models for understanding the impacts of climate change on rice yield and a causal system for investigating the impacts of climate change on rice yield, rice production and harvested areas. Again, the combination of statistical and system dynamics modelling simultaneously investigates the impacts of climate change on rice yield, rice production and harvested areas. This means that this study provides a more holistic view of the impacts of climate change compared to existing studies.  This study also offers practical contributions, advising that declining rice research should be avoided under a changing climate, and suggesting that farming intensification (more climate-resilient rice varieties) is more effective than farming extension (area expansion) in sustaining rice production under a changing climate. Again, research on developing more resilient-climate rice varieties is possible as projected rice yield in sustaining rice production by 2090 (2077-2100) is similar to rice’s yield potential.

History

Copyright Date

01/01/2017

Date of Award

01/01/2017

Publisher

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License

Author Retains Copyright

Degree Discipline

System Dynamics Modeling

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level

Doctoral

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code

2 STRATEGIC BASIC RESEARCH

Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Doctoral Thesis

Language

en_NZ

Victoria University of Wellington School

Victoria Management School

Advisors

Cavana, Robert; Renwick, James; Corbett, Lawrence