Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington
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Exploring how Men with Children Experience Bi-directional Intimate Partner Aggression (IPA) and Help-seeking

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posted on 2021-05-04, 23:30 authored by Jensen, Charlotte

This qualitative study investigated how men who lived with their female partner and children experienced bi-directional intimate partner aggression (IPA) and help-seeking in their relationships in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). Semi structured interviews with 13 men who had disclosed living with bi-directional IPA were analysed by taking an inductive, semantic, and realist/essentialist approach to reflexive thematic analysis. Five themes were identified that related to the men’s experiences of IPA and help-seeking. The first theme identified the cycle of bi-directional aggression and comprised four subthemes: 1) unstable relationship foundations, 2) the build-up, 3) caught up in the challenge, and 4) point of de-escalation. Second, the impact of gender roles on bi-directional aggression was identified and comprised three subthemes: 1) gendered norms shape men’s aggression, 2) response to incongruence in gender roles, and 3) female resourcefulness. The third theme described how the maintenance of the abusive relationship was enabled and consisted of four subthemes: 1) misinformed perspective of IPA, 2) denial and normalisation of IPA, 3) attachment to children kept men stuck, and 4) barriers to accessing services. The multi-layered impact of the abusive relationship was described in the fourth theme and comprised three subthemes: 1) negative psychological impact on men, 2) awareness of impact on partner, and 3) children caught in the crossfire. The power of positive help-seeking was identified in the final theme which comprised two subthemes: 1) facilitators to seeking help, and 2) making positive changes. Collectively the findings show how bi-directional aggression perpetuates over time and how the lack of individual and professional understanding can impact men’s help-seeking and maintenance of the aggression. The need for research, policy, and practice to address this common form of IPA is discussed, specifically with regards to how society conceptualises IPA and the importance of providing education on the nature of bi-directional aggression.


Copyright Date


Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License

Author Retains Copyright

Degree Discipline

Forensic Psychology

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Master of Science

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code

940199 Community Service (excl. Work) not elsewhere classified

Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Research Masters Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Psychology


Dixon, Louise