Comparative Study Of Urban Residential Neighbourhoods For Assessing Urban Heat Island Effects Using Envi-Met Simulation
This study assessed the urban characteristics of residential neighbourhoods in Mashhad, Iran and the related urban heat island (UHI) characteristics. The aim was to find the influential and causative neighbourhood characteristics on metrological parameters such as air temperature and surface temperature and provide recommendations for urban policymakers and designers to reduce UIH in cities. The urban heat island effect is a product of urbanization and in certain climates, including climates like that of Mashhad, can lead to increased use of energy for cooling, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Global warming is also a product of human activities, and the climate change that comes with it poses a threat to both humankind and the planet. At the same time, Iran, as one of main global producers of greenhouse gasses, has witnessed rapid urbanization and a dramatic increase in energy use. In the past, urbanization did not produce this increase in energy use, suggesting modern urbanization is in complete contrast with traditional urban and architectural design principles. Climatic design has always been one of the most important principles of traditional architecture in Iran. Different climate zones have inspired traditional architecture, creating design solutions that made cities and buildings liveable for people. As this problem has at least in part been created by cities the solution should also be addressed there. Countermeasures against urban warming consist of mitigation and adaptation strategies, however, these two conflict with each other in many aspects, particularly in land use. Compact urban development has been proposed as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by reducing car use, while expanding green spaces, and hence increasing distances between places, is a UHI adaptation strategy. Local adaptation and mitigation strategies based on available data, tools and resources in parallel with understanding the necessary level of intervention could be a valuable solution for reducing UHI effects in Iran.