Certification and Regulation of Trade in Biofuels
The recent increase in biofuel production and trade has raised concerns about environmental and other impacts, and has prompted some governments to initiate measures to ensure biofuels are produced sustainably. Certification schemes are the most common measure used, and apply to both imported biofuels, and those produced in the country that has initiated the certification scheme. This dissertation argues that biofuels certification schemes, as currently drafted, are inconsistent with WTO trade agreements. Biofuel policies and certification schemes need to be better coordinated internationally to ensure that policy goals are met in a way that complies with trade agreements. The dissertation recommends that international standards need to be further developed to promote consistency between certification schemes and to support WTO consistency.