Basin Analysis of Tertiary Strata in Golden Bay, Nelson
Eocene to Miocene strata comprise the Brunner Coal Measures (Ak-Ld), Takaka Limestone (Ld-Po), Tarakohe Mudstone (P1-S1) and Waitui Sandstone (Sc-Sl), and form a transgressive-regressive sequence on an essentially stable structural platform. Brunner Coal Measures in the Takaka valley (up to 350m thick) consist of cross-bedded sand and gravel, interlaminated sand and silt, bioturbated muddy sandstone, carbonaceous mudstone and coal. Five facies associations are recognized and interpreted as river/floodbasin, estuarine and shallow marine deposits. In the Aorere and Parapara River catchments, two new members are recognized: the Quartz Wash Member, comprising quartzose sand and conglomerate, and the Washbourn Limonite Member, a sedimentary iron-ore deposit. The Takaka Limestone (up to 100m thick), consists of bryozoan, bivalve or sandy grainstone or packstone, deposited on a tidal current-swept shallow-middle shelf with minimal terrigenous influx. Diagenesis was controlled by pressure-solution during deep burial, and resulted in a rightly cemented rock with dolomite and neomorphic features. The Tarakohe Mudstone (up to 900m thick) is dominated in its lower half by massive mudstone of hemipelagic and turbiditic origin, and in its upper half by shallow shelf-estuarine sandstones and mudstones. The Waitui Sandstone (160m thick) comprises shallow marine sandstone. Deposition of the Brunner Coal Measures took place in localized fault-angle depressions. The Takaka Limestone was deposited during a period of regional subsidence and minimal tectonic activity. The Tarakohe Mudstone and Waitui Sandstone were deposited in synclinal basins which were later modified by rising monoclinal boundaries.