Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington
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A History of Marginalisation: Maori Women

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posted on 2021-11-13, 22:33 authored by Gemmell, Monique

This thesis is a history of marginalisation as experienced by Maori women within New Zealand. My argument is that through the founding British Crown, the education system and Christianity, Maori women were marginalised (Pihama, 2001). My hypothesis is that once we understand how we were marginalised, we begin to liberate ourselves.  I seek to identify legislation and social phenomena that marginalised Maori women. These are the sorts of discourses led to assimilative, alienative and hegemonic outcomes for Maori women. Moana Jackson refers to this form of marginalisation and its influences as, “the destruction of the Maori soul” (as cited by Mikaere, 1995, p. 138).  The consequences of marginalisation will highlight the importance of identity, matauranga Maori and the relevance of whenua to Maori women (Mikaere, 2003). In undertaking this task, I seek to answer how the New Zealand education system could contribute to emancipating Maori women.  By applying a Kaupapa Maori methodology (Smith, G. , 1997), an examination of how Maori women were effected by colonisation and imperialism will be explored. For this study, I have opted to utilise a qualitative approach in gathering and undertaking my research (Denzin & Lincoln, 1984). The Kaupapa Maori methodology and a qualitative method enable me as a Maori woman to tell the story of our lived experiences as Maori women.


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Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

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Degree Discipline


Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Master of Education

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code

940114 Māori Development and Welfare

Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Research Masters Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

Te Kura Māori


Penetito, Wally