Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington
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4D Building Information Modelling With Augmented Reality on Mobile Devices to Support Construction Management: Applications and key performance criteria from a stakeholder perspective

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posted on 2021-11-14, 09:06 authored by Vaai, Jay

This research addresses the gap between construction project management and the 3D visualization of construction sequence. Typically project managers use software that presents construction stages as 2D Gantt charts, where the X axis represents time and the Y axis represents the construction activity. These are then typically cross referenced to either 2D or 3D construction drawings. The potential of linking construction sequencing charts and critical paths to Building Information Models is well established. So called ‘4D BIM’ applications such as Synchro enable the linking of three dimensional information and Gantt charts. There is also precedent in virtual reality simulations, such as the AR4BC project by (Woodward, Hakkarainen, & Rainio, 2010) and the desktop VR simulation applications for teaching construction management (Nikolic, 2006). From these and other precedents it is observed that 4D BIM is orientated towards the final stages of design where models are complex and not optimized, while full VR applications are typically not available in practice. Moreover, recent availability of augmented reality applications for mobile devices opens up new ways to integrate 4D BIM into project management. As part of initial discussions with consultants, a mock-up of an AR application running on a tablet that would enable on - site visualization was demonstrated. Given positive feedback, prototype applications were developed using the Unity interactive 3D authoring platform, which provides real time interaction between a Gantt chart and a 3D model. The final AR application uses a plan drawing as the marker and the user can switch between isometric and first person cameras to review construction sequencing, with the aim of identifying potential sequencing issues and / or clashes in the design while on site. The prototype interface and functionality have been evaluated through a series of structured interviews with building industry professionals. The results of these interviews have been analysed and from this, key performance criteria and guidelines for further development have been identified. This thesis illustrates the potential of AR on mobile devices for construction management, documents the design and implementation of a prototype application and articulates issues for further research from the perspective of key building industry stakeholders.


Copyright Date


Date of Award



Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Rights License

Author Retains Copyright

Degree Discipline

Project Management

Degree Grantor

Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington

Degree Level


Degree Name

Master of Building Science

ANZSRC Type Of Activity code

970112 Expanding Knowledge in Built Environment and Design

Victoria University of Wellington Item Type

Awarded Research Masters Thesis



Victoria University of Wellington School

School of Architecture


Moloney, Jules; Moleta, Tane