Testing the construct validity and empirical distinctiveness of the Multicultural Identity Styles Scale (MISS) and the bicultural identity integration scale (BIIS-2)
© 2020 American Psychological Association. The Bicultural Identity Integration Scale (BIIS-2) and the Multicultural Identity Styles Scale (MISS) were designed to assess different aspects of bicultural identity. The BIIS-2 captures characteristics of a bicultural identity in the domains of affect (harmony vs. conflict) and cognition (blendedness vs. compartmentalization). The MISS measures 2 distinct strategies (hybrid and alternating identity styles) used to achieve and maintain a bicultural identity. The aims of the present study were to investigate the factor structures of MISS and BIIS-2 scores using confirmatory factor analysis and to examine potential construct overlap between the 2 measures using exploratory structural equation modeling. Measures were administered twice (11 days apart) to a sample of 836 Hispanic young adults in the United States. Confirmatory factor analytic results supported the 2-factor structure of the MISS. The BIIS-2 items patterned onto 4 factors: harmony, conflict, blendedness, and compartmentalization. Configural, metric, and scalar equivalence of the factor structures of both measures were established across time. The exploratory structural equation modeling indicated no salient cross-loadings between the MISS and the BIIS-2 subscales, and this independence was consistent across time. Interfactor correlations indicated a strong, positive relationship between the hybrid identity style and BII-blendedness subscales. Scores on the alternating identity style subscale were positively related to the BII-conflict, BII-compartmentalization, and BII-blendedness subscales. Overall, findings provide evidence for the construct validity of the MISS and its empirical distinctiveness from the BIIS-2 and suggest a 4-factor structure for the BIIS-2. The study suggests that the Multicultural Identity Styles Scale and the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale assess distinct aspects of a bicultural identity. Additionally, findings confirm the construct validity of the Multicultural Identity Styles Scale with a sample of Hispanic young adults and indicate a potential four-factor structure for the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale.