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Spot urine and 24-h diet recall estimates of dietary sodium intake from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey: a comparison
journal contributionposted on 20.08.2020, 05:09 by RM McLean, SM Williams, Lisa Te Morenga, JI Mann
© 2018, Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. Background: We aimed to test the difference between estimates of dietary sodium intake using 24-h diet recall and spot urine collection in a large sample of New Zealand adults. Methods: We analysed spot urine results, 24-h diet recall, dietary habits questionnaire and anthropometry from a representative sample of 3312 adults aged 15 years and older who participated in the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Estimates of adult population sodium intake were derived from 24-h diet recall and spot urine sodium using a formula derived from analysis of INTERSALT data. Correlations, limits of agreement and mean difference were calculated for the total sample, and for population subgroups. Results: Estimated total population 24-h urinary sodium excretion (mean (95% CI)) from spot urine samples was 3035 mg (2990, 3079); 3612 mg (3549, 3674) for men and 2507 mg (2466, 2548) for women. Estimated mean usual daily sodium intake from 24-h diet recall data (excluding salt added at the table) was 2564 mg (2519, 2608); 2849 mg (2779, 2920) for men and 2304 mg (2258, 2350) for women. Correlations between estimates were poor, especially for men, and limits of agreement using Bland–Altman mean difference analysis were wide. Conclusions: There is a poor agreement between estimates of individual sodium intake from spot urine collection and those from 24-hour diet recall. Although, both 24-hour dietary recall and estimated urinary excretion based on spot urine indicate mean population sodium intake is greater than 2 g, significant differences in mean intake by method deserve further investigation in relation to the gold standard, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.
Preferred citationMcLean, R. M., Williams, S. M., Te Morenga, L. A. & Mann, J. I. (2018). Spot urine and 24-h diet recall estimates of dietary sodium intake from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey: a comparison. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(8), 1120-1127. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0176-0
Journal titleEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
Online publication date22/05/2018
Read the peer-reviewed publication
NutritionMetabolic and EndocrineAdolescentAdultAgedBody Mass IndexCross-Sectional StudiesDiet RecordsFeeding BehaviorFemaleHumansMaleMental RecallMiddle AgedNew ZealandNutrition SurveysSodium, DietarySurveys and QuestionnairesWorld Health OrganizationYoung AdultNutrition & DieteticsNutrition and DieteticsFood SciencesHuman Movement and Sports Sciences